In 1974 the sociologist Dr. Edward Banfield of Harvard University wrote a book titled “The Unheavenly City”. In the book he discusses the findings of research he conducted with the purpose of finding why some people become financially independent and improve their social status whilst others do not.
When he started his research Dr. Banfield expected to find that the typical factors of education, race, family background, influential contacts or intelligence would be the primary contributing factors to success. To his surprise none of these factors could be attributed to the reasons for success. What he found was that people became successful due to a specific way of thinking.